The Future of Programming Careers in the Era of Industry 4.0

Business | 2023-08-03

In the early 2000s, professions in programming and computer science appeared to offer promising career prospects, setting the stage for a technology-driven future. However, with the advent of Industry 4.0 and the rise of artificial intelligence (AI), the career landscape is undergoing a significant shift. To understand the emerging areas of education that hold the best career prospects, we turn to the insights of two experts from In4Act – Dr. Andrius Grybauskas and Prof. Mantas Vilkas. These researchers shed light on the potential of computer science and the impact of generative AI models on knowledge-intensive professions.

Dr. Andrius Grybauskas: Programming is Key Player in the AI Revolution

According to Dr. Grybauskas, computer science, data science, and programming fields are at the forefront of the AI revolution today. While some may speculate that these professions could be threatened by AI’s capabilities, he believes that they will remain essential. AI is still in its early stages and requires substantial input from programmers to lead its development.

In his words, “Certainly, the fields will change, but AI is still underdeveloped and requires a vast amount of input from programmers to lead its development.” Contrarily, he foresees programming becoming more crucial than ever, comparing it to the significance of pen writing. As AI continues to evolve, those with coding skills will become even more productive, driving the demand for tech-savvy professionals.

Prof. Mantas Vilkas: The Potential Impact of Generative AI Models on Knowledge-Intensive Professions

Prof. Vilkas delves into the impact of large generative AI models that have recently emerged. While many companies are exploring various use cases for these models, the overall implications are still uncertain. The legislation surrounding AI could play a pivotal role in shaping its impact on different professions.

He emphasizes, “The legislation may inhibit the diffusion of the used cases based on the models. For example, Italy has restricted the use of ChatGPT recently.” However, if regulations are loose, knowledge-intensive professions are likely to be most affected by the emergence of generative AI. Among these professions, IT developers, sales managers, educators, legal sector workers, publishing, and creative industry workers could be significantly impacted.

Taking the example of IT developers, Prof. Vilkas explains, “Current large language models are able to code segments of code responding to text inquires…such capabilities may decrease the workload on an IT developer from 30 to 60%.” While the IT sector has a relatively low number of graduates from IT-related study programs, the demand for skilled developers is immense. In the short-to-medium term, generative AI may increase the sector’s productivity without negative consequences. However, in the long run, as AI models become more capable, the transformation of the IT sector could become more substantive.


As Industry 4.0 continues to reshape the career landscape, it is evident that certain fields will remain crucial while others may undergo significant changes. Computer science, data science, and programming will continue to be key players in the AI revolution, with professionals in these areas remaining in high demand.

On the other hand, the emergence of generative AI models presents unique challenges for knowledge-intensive professions. Striking the right balance between AI-driven automation and human creativity will be crucial in navigating the future of lucrative careers in the ever-evolving landscape of Industry 4.0.